Pact of Umar (7th Century)

The Status of Non-Muslims Under Muslim Rule


After the rapid expansion of the Muslim dominion in the 7th century, 
Muslims leaders were required to work out a way of dealing with Non-Muslims, 
who remained in the majority in many areas for centuries. The solution was to 
develop the notion of the "dhimma", or "protected person". The Dhimmis were 
required to pay an extra tax, but usually they were unmolested. This compares well 
with the treatment meted out to non-Christians in Christian Europe. The Pact of 
Umar is supposed to have been the peace accord offered by the Caliph Umar to the 
Christians of Syria, a "pact" which formed the pattern of later interaction. 

We heard from 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Ghanam [died 78/697] as follows: When 
Umar ibn al-Khattab, may God be pleased with him, accorded a peace to the 
Christians of Syria, we wrote to him as follows: 

In the name of God, the Merciful and Compassionate. This is a letter to the servant 
of God Umar [ibn al-Khattab], Commander of the Faithful, from the Christians of 
such-and-such a city. When you came against us, we asked you for safe-conduct 
(aman) for ourselves, our descendants, our property, and the people of our 
community, and we undertook the following obligations toward you: 
 
We shall not build, in our cities or in their neighborhood, new monasteries, 
Churches, convents, or monks' cells, nor shall we repair, by day or by night, such 
of them as fall in ruins or are situated in the quarters of the Muslims. 
 
We shall keep our gates wide open for passersby and travelers. We shall give 
board and lodging to all Muslims who pass our way for three days. 
 
We shall not give shelter in our churches or in our dwellings to any spy, nor bide 
him from the Muslims. 
 
We shall not teach the Qur'an to our children. 
 
We shall not manifest our religion publicly nor convert anyone to it. We shall not 
prevent any of our kin from entering Islam if they wish it. 
 
We shall show respect toward the Muslims, and we shall rise from our seats when 
they wish to sit. 
 
We shall not seek to resemble the Muslims by imitating any of their garments, the 
qalansuwa, the turban, footwear, or the parting of the hair. We shall not speak as 
they do, nor shall we adopt their kunyas. 
 
We shall not mount on saddles, nor shall we gird swords nor bear any kind of arms 
nor carry them on our- persons. 
 
We shall not engrave Arabic inscriptions on our seals. 
 
We shall not sell fermented drinks. 
 
We shall clip the fronts of our heads. 
 
We shall always dress in the same way wherever we may be, and we shall bind the 
zunar round our waists 
 
We shall not display our crosses or our books in the roads or markets of the 
Muslims. We shall use only clappers in our churches very softly. We shall not 
raise our voices when following our dead. We shall not show lights on any of the 
roads of the Muslims or in their markets. We shall not bury our dead near the 
Muslims. 
 
We shall not take slaves who have been allotted to Muslims. 
 
We shall not build houses overtopping the houses of the Muslims. 
 
(When I brought the letter to Umar, may God be pleased with him, he added, "We 
shall not strike a Muslim.") 
 
We accept these conditions for ourselves and for the people of our community, 
and in return we receive safe-conduct. 
 
If we in any way violate these undertakings for which we ourselves stand surety, 
we forfeit our covenant [dhimma], and we become liable to the penalties for 
contumacy and sedition. 
 
Umar ibn al-Khittab replied: Sign what they ask, but add two clauses and impose 
them in addition to those which they have undertaken. They are: "They shall not 
buy anyone made prisoner by the Muslims," and "Whoever strikes a Muslim with 
deliberate intent shall forfeit the protection of this pact." 
 
from Al-Turtushi, Siraj al-Muluk, pp. 229-230. 
 

This text is part of the Internet Medieval Source Book. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history. Unless otherwise indicated the specific electronic form of the document is copyright. Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print form for educational purposes and personal use. If you do reduplicate the document, indicate the source. No permission is granted for commercial use. (c)Paul Halsall Jan 1996


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